Referencing Styles: APA

This is a brief guide to the referencing style developed by the American Psychological Association.

In-text citation

In the text of your work, include a citation after you have quoted or paraphrased someone else's work, like this:

  • Webb (2018) argues that...
  • ... depending on the circumstances (Webb, 2018).
  • ... the evidence" (Webb, 2018, p.34).


Referencing journal articles

Follow this formula:

Author surname, initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers. DOI or Retrieved from URL


For example:

Burt, C. & Carr, S. (2011). Organizational psychology and poverty reduction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(6), 444-452. DOI:10.1108/02683941111154329


DOI stands for 'Digital Object Identifier'. It is a string of numbers which identifies the article. You can find it on the article's page in the database.


Referencing e-books

Follow this formula:

Author surname, initials. (Ed(s). if applicable) (Year). Title (ed. if applicable). Retrieved from URL


For example:

Hogg, M. & Vaughan, G. (2013). Social Psychology (7th ed.). Retrieved from


For more details on the APA referencing style, take a look at the APA's Guidelines or Mendeley's guide on APA.